Watch Terminology

If you’re new to watchmaking and the world of horology, you will find that there is a whole new dictionary of definitions and glossary of terms to learn. Whilst some of them are self-explanatory, there are a lot that may stump you upon first reading or hearing.

We all begin somewhere so don’t worry, you aren’t expected to understand the extent of watch terminology as the first gate. Here at WatchmakingTools, we understand that as a beginner in the field, watchmaking can be a minefield so we’re here to make it easy for you. You can find a full, extensive list of watch terms right here so if you come across something throughout your journey that you are unsure of, we’re here to give you the full and easy to understand definition.

Frequently Searched Watch Terminology

What does TMI mean?

The TMI meaning is one that sparks a lot of curiosity and is the abbreviation of Time Module Inc. TMI is the trademark of a company known for producing watch movements and they manufacture a range of mechanical, automatic and quartz movements that are used in various watch brands and models.

TMI movements are often found in both affordable and mid-range watches providing reliable and accurate timekeeping mechanisms. The use of TMI movements allows watch manufacturers to offer quality movements at competitive prices, making them a popular choice in the watch industry.

What is GMT?

GMT is commonly found in the world of horology and if you’re curious as to what does GMT stand for, it is simply the abbreviation for Greenwich Mean Time. GMT is the central time zone of the planet with all other time zones across the world + or – GMT. However, in the world of watches, GMT often refers to a complication on a GMT watch.

What is a GMT watch? A GMT watch is one that features a hand that is always synchronized to the GMT time zone. This allows for easy timekeeping across multiple time zones and can also be synched to a specific location. GMT watches were originally designed for pilots but are not popularly used by anyone wanting to track two time zones on the same device.

What is amplitude?

Amplitude refers to how much the balance wheel swings back and forth. This swing is important for accurate timekeeping. If the swing is too big or too small, the watch might not keep the right time.

Watchmakers check and adjust the amplitude using a timegrapher to make sure the watch works well. It’s like checking the heartbeat of the watch to make sure it’s healthy and accurate.

The ideal amplitude can vary between different watch movements but it typically falls within the range of 250 to 310 degrees for most mechanical watches. Maintaining a consistent and appropriate amplitude is vital for ensuring the longevity and accuracy of a mechanical timepiece.

What does ETA stand for?

ETA is an abbreviation of Ebauche Technologique Suisse and refers to a type of watch movement designed by this manufacturer. They specialize in creating some of the finest watch movements and an ETA movement is considered the most widely used in watchmaking history.

What is a horologist?

The horologist meaning is simply a person who specializes in the study, craftsmanship and maintenance of watches. Ultimately, horologist is a nice, fancy term for a watchmaker.

What is a chronograph watch?

A chronograph watch is a special kind of watch that also functions as a stopwatch. It can measure time easily and is useful for things like races or events. It features extra buttons on the side that you can push to start, stop and reset the stopwatch with small dials on the face to show the time measured.

What is a chronometer?

The chronometer definition is a highly accurate watch or clock that has been tested and certified to keep precise time even in different conditions. It must meet strict criteria and continue to perform under different temperature conditions to be classified as a chronometer.

What is a SpringLOCK?

SpringLOCK is a patented anti-shock system that reduces shock impact and improves watch accuracy. It reduces the impact of shock by up to 66% ensuring you can engage in high impact and sporting activities without affecting the accuracy of your watch.

What is a tachymeter?

A tachymeter is a watch complication that measures the speed of how fast something is moving. It allows you to start a timer when something begins moving, for example, a car, and stop it after a certain distance. The tachymeter then shows the speed based on the time elapsed. It’s useful for activities where speed matters such as racing.

What is a sapphire crystal?

A sapphire crystal is a transparent cover that protects the dial and other components of a watch. It’s made from synthetic sapphire, a very hard and durable material. Sapphire crystals are highly resistant to scratches and are often used in high-quality watches to ensure the watch face remains clear and free from damage over time.

What is a C clip?

A C clip is a small watch part that keeps the chronograph pusher in place. It is a flexible, open-ended ring that ensures the chronograph pusher has movement but stays where it is meant to be by ensuring it cannot come out of the watch case.

What is kif?

Kif is a shock protection system used in mechanical watches. Kif produces multiple anti-shock systems and is commonly found in Rolex watches.

What is a quartz movement?

A quartz movement is a type of timekeeping mechanism used in watches. It relies on the precise oscillations of a quartz crystal to regulate timekeeping and was a gamechanger in the world of horology. Quartz movements are low maintenance and renowned for their accuracy. They are typically more affordable than mechanical watches and rarely need adjustment.

What is a watch bezel?

A watch bezel is the ring around a watch face that secures the glass or crystal in place but may also have other functions. It acts as a frame around the dial and can have numbers, designs or markings that do or indicate different things. A bezel is both useful and can enhance the aesthetic appeal of a timepiece.

What is a date wheel?

A date wheel is the mechanism that rotates once daily to reflect the accurate date in the date window on the watch face.

A – Watch Terminology


An Addendum refers to the part located between each tooth on a gear or pinion within a watch mechanism. The primary function of the addendum is to facilitate the seamless transition of energy and motion between these teeth, preventing any sudden jerks or irregularities in the movement. By acting as a buffer between the gear teeth, the addendum helps maintain the overall integrity and accuracy of the watch.


Ensures the watch’s accuracy by controlling its pace. Changes in temperature or position can affect timekeeping consistency but the adjustment function either speeds up or slows down the beats as needed.


An altimeter watch contains sensors that measure changes in atmospheric pressure, which correspond to changes in altitude. By displaying this information on the watch dial, users can accurately track their elevation, making it a valuable tool for navigation, safety, and adventure. Whether ascending a mountain peak or flying at high altitudes, the altimeter in watchmaking ensures that enthusiasts and professionals alike have a reliable means of monitoring their vertical position in various environments.


Amplitude refers to the angle or degree of oscillation or swing of the balance wheel within a watch movement. This oscillation is what regulates the timekeeping of the watch, with each swing of the balance wheel representing a tick and a tock. The ideal amplitude for most mechanical watches typically falls within the range of 250 to 310 degrees. If the amplitude is too large or too small, it can affect the watch’s ability to keep accurate time. Watchmakers meticulously measure and adjust the amplitude using specialized tools like a timegrapher to ensure that it remains within this optimal range.


Analog watch dials provide a visual representation of time through the movement of hands sweeping across a dial marked with hour, minute, and sometimes second indicators. This traditional approach to timekeeping not only offers a classic and aesthetic appeal but also allows wearers to easily and intuitively read the time at a glance. Analog watches have been a symbol of craftsmanship and sophistication for centuries, making them a choice for those who appreciate both the artistry and functionality of timepieces.


In today’s modern world, we are constantly surrounded by magnetic fields, from electronic devices to everyday objects. These magnetic fields can have a detrimental effect on the precision of mechanical watches, causing them to run too fast or too slow. To counter this, watchmakers incorporate Anti-magnetic materials, such as special alloys and shielding, within the watch’s movement to protect its delicate components, particularly the hairspring, from the influence of magnetic forces.


An Aperture is a small window or openings strategically placed on the dial to reveal various data such as the date, day of the week, month, moon phase, or other relevant complications. These apertures enhance the functionality of the timepiece by providing at-a-glance access to additional information, reducing clutter on the watch face, and contributing to the overall aesthetics of the design.

Automatic Movement

An Automatic Movement, also known as self-winding movement, serves a fundamental purpose in watchmaking by eliminating the need for manual winding. This ingenious mechanism harnesses the kinetic energy generated by the wearer’s everyday motions, such as wrist movements, to wind the watch’s mainspring. As the wearer wears the watch, a rotor inside the timepiece pivots with each motion, transferring energy to the mainspring. This energy is then stored and used to power the watch’s movement, ensuring its continuous operation.

B – Watch Terminology

Balance Spring / Hairspring

The balance spring, also known as the hairspring, is a fundamental component in watchmaking that plays a crucial role in ensuring the accuracy and precision of a timepiece. It is a fine, coiled spring typically made of an alloy with excellent elasticity and anti-magnetic properties. The primary purpose of the balance spring is to regulate the oscillations of the balance wheel, which is the heartbeat of a mechanical watch. As the balance wheel swings back and forth, the balance spring controls its movement, allowing it to maintain a consistent and precise rate of oscillation. This precise oscillation, in turn, governs the release of energy from the watch’s mainspring, ensuring that the watch keeps accurate time. The balance spring’s ability to resist external influences such as shocks, temperature variations, and magnetic fields is vital in maintaining a watch’s reliability and timekeeping accuracy, making it a critical component in the art of horology.


The Barrel is a small but essential component, essentially a cylindrical container that houses the mainspring, a tightly wound coil of special alloy. The mainspring serves as the energy source for the watch, storing potential energy when wound. As time ticks away, this stored energy is gradually released through the barrel’s gear train, regulating the movement of the watch’s hands. In essence, the barrel acts as the beating heart of a timepiece, ensuring a consistent and precise flow of power to drive the intricate mechanism of gears, escapements, and balance wheels, ultimately enabling the watch to keep impeccable time.


Essentially, a bridge is a flat, narrow metal plate strategically positioned within a watch movement to support and stabilize various rotating gears, pivots, and other crucial components. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining the structural integrity of the watch movement, preventing excessive wear and friction among the intricate parts.

C – Watch Terminology

C Clip / Circlip

A C Clip serves a crucial purpose in securing and stabilizing the chronograph pusher within the watch case. This small, flexible, open-ended ring may seem unassuming, but its role is vital for the proper functioning of certain watch components. By holding the chronograph pusher firmly in place, the C clip ensures that it maintains the correct position and movement. Without this tiny but essential component, the pusher could potentially dislodge or malfunction, leading to inaccuracies in the watch’s timing functions.


A Cabochon refers to a smooth, rounded gemstone, often made from materials like sapphire or precious stones, that is meticulously placed on the crown of a watch. Functionally, the cabochon acts as a protective cover for the crown, shielding it from external elements and potential damage. This not only preserves the watch’s delicate inner mechanisms but also adds a touch of elegance and luxury to the timepiece’s design.


A Calendar ensures that a timepiece not only tells the time accurately but also keeps the wearer informed about the day of the month. Watch calendars come in various forms, including simple date displays, day-date combinations, and even perpetual calendars that automatically adjust for variable month lengths and leap years. Whether for everyday use or special occasions, the calendar in watchmaking adds both functionality and practicality, making it an indispensable component of many timepieces.

Caliber / Calibre

Caliber, often referred to as the movement, serves as the mechanical brain that powers the watch, dictating its precision and functionality. It comprises a complex assembly of gears, springs, levers, and jewels meticulously designed and engineered to keep time with remarkable accuracy. Whether it’s a manual-wind, automatic, or quartz movement, the caliber is the essence of a watch, transforming it from a mere accessory into a testament of human ingenuity and dedication to the art of measuring time.

Cannon Pinion

This tiny but essential component, often hidden beneath the dial, serves as the driving force behind the movement of the hour and minute hands. Positioned at the center of the dial, the cannon pinion receives its motion from the rest of the movement, particularly the escapement and gear train. As it rotates, the cannon pinion transfers this energy to the hour and minute hands, allowing them to glide smoothly across the watch face, indicating the precise time. See our beginners guide to Cannon Pinion Removers.


The Case acts as a protective enclosure, safeguarding the delicate internal components of the watch from environmental elements, dust, moisture, and physical impacts. This protection ensures the longevity and proper functioning of the timepiece. Additionally, the watch case is a canvas for artistic expression, contributing significantly to the watch’s overall design and style. It can come in various materials, shapes, and finishes, allowing watchmakers to create unique and visually appealing timepieces.


The Caseback encloses and shields the delicate internal components of the watch, such as the movement, gears, and springs, from external elements like dust, moisture, and potential physical damage. Beyond its protective role, the caseback can also be designed to showcase intricate engravings, offer insights into the watch’s specifications, or even provide a transparent window to reveal the movement, adding an aesthetic dimension to its utilitarian purpose.


A Chronograph functions as a precision stopwatch, allowing users to accurately measure elapsed time down to fractions of a second. This feature finds practical applications in various fields, including sports, aviation, and scientific research, where precise timing is critical. A typical chronograph watch comprises additional sub-dials or registers that display the recorded time intervals, such as seconds, minutes, and hours, providing users with comprehensive timing capabilities.


A chronometer is a highly specialized timepiece that has undergone rigorous testing and certification to ensure its exceptional timekeeping abilities, even under various conditions. These watches are designed to maintain remarkable accuracy, typically within a range of -4 to +6 seconds per day, surpassing the performance of standard mechanical watches. The precision of a chronometer is achieved through meticulous craftsmanship, the use of high-quality materials, and precise adjustments. This level of accuracy makes chronometers invaluable in various fields, including aviation, navigation, and scientific research, where precise timekeeping is of utmost importance.


A Complication refers to any additional function or feature on a timepiece beyond its basic timekeeping ability. Complications serve to enhance the watch’s utility and aesthetic appeal, catering to a wide range of preferences and needs. These can include functions like date displays, moon phase indicators, chronographs, alarms, and even intricate mechanisms like tourbillons that counteract the effects of gravity on timekeeping precision.


The COSC, an abbreviation for Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres, or Swiss Chronometer Testing Bureau. This organization tests watch precision certifying watches that meet their standards. The COSC certification is a mark of excellence, indicating that a watch has met stringent standards for timekeeping performance. To earn this prestigious certification, a watch must undergo a series of tests conducted in varying positions and at different temperatures to ensure it maintains exceptional accuracy under real-world conditions. COSC certification is particularly important for luxury Swiss watchmakers, as it signifies the exceptional craftsmanship and precision engineering that go into creating these timepieces.


Positioned on the side of a watch case, the Crown acts as a multifunctional control center. Its primary role involves setting the time, adjusting the date, and winding the watch’s mainspring in manual-wind movements. When gently pulled out or turned in various positions, the crown enables precise calibration of the watch’s hands, ensuring accurate timekeeping. Additionally, in some water-resistant watches, the crown is equipped with a screw-down mechanism to create a hermetic seal, safeguarding the internal mechanisms from moisture and dust.


Typically made from synthetic sapphire or mineral glass, the Crystal shields the delicate inner components of the watch from dust, moisture, and external elements, ensuring their longevity and precision. Simultaneously, it offers a clear view of the watch’s dial, allowing wearers to read the time with ease. The choice of crystal material impacts a watch’s durability, with sapphire crystals being highly resistant to scratches and mineral glass offering robust protection.

D – Watch Terminology

Date Wheel

The Date Wheel in watchmaking serves a crucial function by displaying the current date on the watch dial. The Date Wheel consists of numerals or markers corresponding to each day of the month. Through a complex mechanical or quartz-driven mechanism, the Date Wheel advances gradually, typically at midnight, to reveal the new date. This feature adds both practicality and convenience to watches, allowing wearers to easily keep track of the date, making it a valuable tool in everyday life and various professional settings.

Day/Date Watch

A Day/Date Watch, a prominent feature in watchmaking, serves the dual purpose of displaying not only the date but also the day of the week on the watch face. This complication adds a practical element to timekeeping, providing wearers with essential information at a glance. Whether for work, appointments, or simply staying organized in daily life, a Day/Date Watch eliminates the need to check calendars or digital devices.

Day/Night Indicator

The Day/Night Indicator in watchmaking serves as a functional and aesthetic feature that helps wearers distinguish between day and night at a glance. Typically displayed on the watch dial, this indicator uses a rotating disc or an aperture with a shaded or colored section. As time passes and day turns into night, or vice versa, the indicator changes its position to reflect the current time of day. This feature is particularly useful for individuals who frequently traverse multiple time zones or work in environments with limited natural light.


The dial serves as the watch’s visible face, playing a crucial role in both aesthetics and functionality. Beyond its decorative aspect, the dial primarily serves to display essential timekeeping information. It features various elements such as hour markers, numerals, and hands that work in harmony to convey the time accurately. Additionally, many dials incorporate additional functions, including date displays, chronograph subdials, and moon phase indicators, enhancing the watch’s utility.


Digital components, such as LCD and LED displays, bring forth a new dimension to timekeeping. They allow for accurate and instantaneous readings of time, date, and various complications like alarms, chronographs, and world time zones. Digital watches are often lauded for their reliability, low maintenance, and the ability to offer a multitude of features in a compact form factor. They cater not only to watch enthusiasts but also to individuals seeking precise timekeeping for sports, outdoor activities, or professional use. Additionally, the integration of digital elements in hybrid smartwatches bridges the gap between traditional horology and modern connectivity, offering wearers a seamless blend of classic aesthetics and smart functionalities.

Dual Time Zone

The Dual Time Zone feature in watchmaking serves a crucial purpose for individuals who frequently travel or need to keep track of time in multiple locations. It allows wearers to simultaneously display the time in two different time zones on a single watch. This is especially valuable for business travelers, global professionals, or anyone with connections in different parts of the world. By offering the convenience of tracking home time alongside local time, Dual Time Zone watches ensure that wearers can stay punctual for appointments, coordinate with colleagues or loved ones in distant places, and effectively manage their schedules, all from the wrist of a single timepiece.

E – Watch Terminology

Ebauche (ETA)

Ebauche, a French term for “blank” or “movement blank”, refers to the pre-assembled, basic movement of a watch before it receives the final finishing touches. These semi-finished movements are crafted by specialized manufacturers, such as ETA, and serve as the essential starting point for many watchmakers. Ebauche movements provide the core functionality of timekeeping, with the intricate components like the balance wheel, escapement, and mainspring already in place. Watchmakers can then focus their expertise on customization, adding unique features, designs, and fine-tuning to create distinctive timepieces.

Elapsed Time Rotating Bezel

The Elapsed Time Rotating Bezel in watchmaking serves a crucial purpose in various timekeeping scenarios. It functions as a user-friendly, visual aid for measuring elapsed time intervals. Typically featured in dive watches and chronographs, this rotating bezel allows wearers to set a reference point by aligning it with the watch’s minute or second hand. As time passes, the bezel rotates unidirectionally, ensuring that the elapsed time can only grow longer, eliminating the risk of accidental adjustments. This feature is invaluable for tracking activities such as scuba diving, where knowing how long you’ve been underwater is essential for safety. It’s also useful for measuring cooking durations, sports timings, or any event requiring precise time measurement.


The escapement acts as the timekeeping referee within a mechanical watch. Its primary function is to distribute equal, controlled impulses to the watch’s balance wheel, which in turn powers the gears that move the hands on the dial. By doing so, the escapement ensures that the energy stored in the mainspring is released in a uniform and controlled manner, preventing the watch from running too fast or too slow. This ingenious mechanism plays a vital role in maintaining the accuracy and reliability of mechanical timepieces, making it an indispensable element in the art of horology.

G – Watch Terminology


In watchmaking, a Gasket, often rubber or silicone rings, are strategically placed at vulnerable points in a watch, such as around the case back, crown, and pushers. When properly sealed, gaskets create a watertight barrier that ensures a watch can withstand exposure to water without compromising its functionality. Whether you’re a professional diver exploring the depths of the ocean or simply washing your hands, gaskets play an essential role in preserving the integrity and longevity of your timepiece, making them a fundamental component in the world of horology.

Gear Train

The Gear Train is the mechanical system responsible for transmitting power from the mainspring to the escapement, which in turn drives the minute and second hands on a watch dial. Comprising a meticulously designed sequence of interlinked wheels and pinions, the gear train ensures a controlled, regulated transfer of energy, allowing the watch to maintain accurate timekeeping. Each component in this complex system plays a crucial role in dividing and distributing the energy in precise increments, ultimately allowing the hands to move smoothly and consistently, ensuring that the wearer can rely on their timepiece for accurate timekeeping day in and day out.

Geneva Waves

Geneva Waves, also known as Geneva Stripes or Côtes de Genève, serve both a functional and aesthetic purpose in watchmaking. Functionally, they are often applied to the movement’s plates and bridges to enhance the performance of the watch. These finely engraved, repetitive, and undulating stripes reduce friction between the moving parts, ensuring the smooth operation of the gears and mechanisms. This reduction in friction contributes to the watch’s accuracy and longevity. Aesthetically, Geneva Waves are highly prized for their decorative appeal. They add a touch of elegance and sophistication to the watch’s interior components, making them visually appealing through transparent case backs or skeletonized dials.


GMT, which stands for Greenwich Mean Time, serves a crucial purpose by providing a practical solution for tracking time across multiple time zones. A GMT watch typically features an additional hand, often in a different color, which is synchronized with the GMT time zone. This innovation was initially designed to meet the needs of pilots and travelers who frequently crossed time zones. With a GMT watch, wearers can simultaneously keep track of their local time and the time in a second time zone. This functionality is not only valuable for jet-setters but also for professionals, global businesses, and anyone who needs to coordinate activities or communicate across different parts of the world.

Grande Sonnerie

Grande Sonnerie, a remarkable complication in the world of haute horology, serves a distinctive and prestigious purpose in watchmaking. Its primary function is to audibly chime the hours and quarters at the press of a button or automatically, striking the precise time on demand. This intricate mechanism not only indicates the time but also provides an elegant auditory experience, reminiscent of traditional clock towers. Grande Sonnerie watches are considered true masterpieces of craftsmanship, showcasing the pinnacle of watchmaking artistry and complexity. They are often sought after by connoisseurs and collectors for their rarity and the harmonious marriage of engineering and aesthetics they represent in the world of horology.


Guilloché, a meticulous and intricate engraving technique, serves a dual purpose in the world of watchmaking. Primarily, it enhances the aesthetic appeal of watch dials, creating captivating and mesmerizing patterns that catch the eye and reflect the watch’s craftsmanship. These exquisite designs not only add a touch of luxury but also showcase the watchmaker’s attention to detail. Beyond its visual allure, Guilloché also plays a functional role in watchmaking. It provides a textured surface for subsidiary dials, such as those displaying dates or moon phases, ensuring legibility and preventing glare.

H – Watch Terminology


See Balance Spring.


A hallmark serves as a crucial mark of authenticity, quality, and origin. This specialized engraving, typically found on the case of a timepiece, provides essential information about the watch’s composition, origin, and manufacturing year. It plays a significant role in assuring customers of the watch’s authenticity, as well as the quality of materials used. Hallmarks often include details about the type of metal used, such as gold or silver, its purity, and the country of origin. Additionally, they may feature a watch company’s trademark, reference, and serial numbers, further enhancing the watch’s credibility and historical value.


A Horologist specializes in the study, craftsmanship, and maintenance of watches. These skilled artisans are responsible for ensuring that timepieces not only keep accurate time but also function flawlessly. Horologists are involved in the assembly and disassembly of complex watch movements, meticulously adjusting components, and performing repairs when necessary. They possess a deep understanding of the mechanical and technical aspects of watches, allowing them to diagnose issues, regulate movements, and bring vintage timepieces back to life.


Horology is the art and science of measuring time and creating timekeeping devices. It encompasses the intricate craftsmanship and meticulous engineering required to design, construct, and maintain timepieces of unparalleled precision. The purpose of horology in watchmaking is twofold: to accurately measure and display the passage of time and to elevate this measurement to an art form. It involves the mastery of various components, including movements, escapements, balance wheels, and more, all meticulously harmonized to ensure that a watch not only keeps accurate time but also reflects the skill and artistry of its creator. Horologists, or watchmakers, are the guardians of this timeless craft, dedicated to preserving tradition while embracing innovation, thus creating timepieces that are not just functional but also objects of beauty and fascination.

I – Watch Terminology


Incabloc is a crucial component in the world of watchmaking, serving as a shock protection system designed to safeguard the delicate inner workings of mechanical watches. Its primary purpose is to shield the balance staff and escapement wheel from the damaging effects of sudden shocks or impacts that a watch might encounter during everyday wear. The Incabloc system consists of a spring-loaded mounting for the balance wheel jewel bearings, allowing them to move or “float” within their settings when exposed to external forces. This ingenious mechanism absorbs and dissipates the energy generated by shocks, preventing critical parts from breaking or misaligning, and ultimately ensuring the watch’s accuracy and longevity.

J – Watch Terminology


Jewels are typically synthetic sapphires or rubies, prized for their hardness and durability. Their primary purpose is to reduce friction and wear between the various moving parts of the watch, such as gears and pivots. By providing a smooth, low-friction surface, jewels ensure that the delicate inner mechanisms of a watch can operate with precision and longevity. They help minimize the wear and tear that would naturally occur over time, ultimately contributing to the accuracy and reliability of the timepiece. Watchmakers carefully place and align these jewels in strategic locations within the movement, a practice that has become a hallmark of high-quality watch craftsmanship.

Jump Hour Indicator

The Jump Hour Indicator, serves the purpose of simplifying and enhancing the reading of hours on a timepiece. Instead of the traditional analog hour hand rotating continuously around the dial, a Jump Hour Indicator employs a numerical display or a window with a numerical digit that instantly changes to indicate the current hour. This mechanism provides a clear and precise reading of the hour without the need for interpretation, making it especially useful for those who prefer a direct and instantaneous time display.

K – Watch Terminology


Kif, a renowned name in the world of watchmaking, provides an efficient and effective shock protection system for the delicate and intricate components within a timepiece. Kif’s anti-shock mechanisms, such as the Kif Incaflex, are integrated into watch movements to safeguard vital elements like the balance wheel and hairspring from the potentially damaging effects of external shocks and vibrations. By doing so, Kif ensures that these critical parts continue to function smoothly and accurately, even in the face of everyday wear and unexpected impacts.

L – Watch Terminology


Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) have become integral components in modern watchmaking, serving a crucial purpose in enhancing timekeeping accuracy and functionality. LCDs provide a clear and easily readable digital display of time, making it convenient for wearers to quickly and accurately check the hour, minute, and second. Beyond basic timekeeping, LCDs in watches often offer additional features, such as displaying the date, day of the week, alarms, world time zones, and more. This multifunctional aspect is especially valuable for individuals who require precise timekeeping in various settings, such as travelers, athletes, and professionals. LCD technology also enables the incorporation of backlighting, ensuring legibility in low-light conditions.


Lugs are small, protruding extensions on the sides of a watch case play a vital role in securing the watch strap or bracelet, ensuring that the timepiece stays firmly attached to the wearer’s wrist. Functionally, lugs provide the necessary anchoring points for the strap, allowing for easy and secure adjustment. Aesthetically, they contribute to the overall design and style of the watch, adding character and elegance. Lugs come in various shapes and designs, from classic to more elaborate, allowing watchmakers to create timepieces that range from sleek and minimalist to bold and distinctive, catering to a wide range of tastes and preferences within the world of horology.

M – Watch Terminology


The mainspring is a coiled wire of special alloy stores potential energy when wound, and its gradual release powers the watch, regulating its timekeeping. As the mainspring unwinds, it transfers its stored energy through a series of intricate gears and springs, ultimately driving the hands of the watch and ensuring precise and consistent timekeeping. The mainspring’s ability to store and release energy efficiently is a testament to the craftsmanship and engineering that goes into creating these remarkable timekeeping devices.

Manual-Wind Movement

Manual-wind movements require the wearer to manually wind the watch periodically, typically through the crown. As the crown is turned, potential energy is transferred to the mainspring, which stores this energy and gradually releases it to power the watch’s various components. The beauty of manual-wind movements lies in their mechanical complexity and the connection they establish between the wearer and the timepiece. By winding the watch, individuals become active participants in the delicate dance of gears, springs, and escapements that make up the intricate world of horology.

Mechanical Watch

Mechanical Watches rely on intricate gear systems, springs, and balance wheels to measure time with precision. Mechanical watches evoke a sense of nostalgia and appreciation for the meticulous craftsmanship involved in their creation. They’re not just timekeepers but also statements of luxury, heritage, and style. Their purpose in watchmaking is to serve as enduring symbols of time-honored traditions and to cater to enthusiasts who value the art and heritage of timekeeping above all else.

Moon-Phase Display

The Moon-Phase Display provides wearers with information about the current phase of the moon, accurately tracking the lunar cycle. This feature was historically important for activities such as agriculture and navigation, as different phases of the moon could impact tides and planting schedules. Aesthetically, the moon-phase complication adds a touch of elegance and artistry to watch dials, often depicted as a beautifully crafted miniature moon and stars against a dark background.


Often referred to as the “caliber” or “calibre,” the Movement is a complex assembly of intricate components, including gears, springs, and escapements, meticulously crafted to work together harmoniously. Its primary purpose is to regulate the release of energy stored in the mainspring, the coiled spring that powers the watch, in a controlled and consistent manner. This regulated release of energy ensures that the watch’s hands move steadily and predictably, allowing us to track time with precision. Movement types can vary, from manual-winding movements that require regular winding by the wearer to automatic movements that wind themselves through the motion of the wearer’s wrist.

P – Watch Terminology

Perpetual Calendar

A Perpetual Calendar is a sophisticated and highly sought-after complication in watchmaking that serves the purpose of automatically tracking and displaying the date, day of the week, month, and even leap years, all without the need for manual adjustments for differing month lengths or leap years. This intricate mechanism is designed to accurately mimic the irregularities of our calendar system, ensuring that the watch always shows the correct date, even during leap years when an extra day is added to February.

Power Reserve

The Power Reserve functions as a measure of a mechanical watch’s remaining energy, essentially telling you how long the watch can continue keeping time before it requires winding again. Think of it as a fuel gauge for your timepiece. This feature not only offers convenience but also helps ensure the accuracy of the watch’s timekeeping. A longer power reserve means less frequent winding, which can be particularly valuable for automatic watches.

Power-Reserve Indicator

This Power-Reserve Indicator essentially functions as a fuel gauge for a watch, displaying the remaining energy stored in the watch’s mainspring. As a mechanical watch operates, it gradually winds down, and the power-reserve indicator tracks this decline. This feature allows watch enthusiasts to monitor the watch’s remaining energy reserve, ensuring it doesn’t stop unexpectedly. It’s a practical and convenient tool for ensuring that the watch stays accurate by indicating when it’s time to wind it up again.

Q – Watch Terminology

Quartz Watch

The core purpose of a quartz watch lies in its timekeeping precision. These watches employ a quartz crystal oscillator, which vibrates at a consistent frequency when an electrical current is applied. This reliable oscillation serves as the heartbeat of the watch, ensuring that it maintains incredibly accurate timekeeping. Unlike traditional mechanical watches that may require daily winding, quartz watches are low-maintenance, powered by batteries that can last for several years. Their affordability, durability, and minimal need for adjustment make them an accessible choice for many watch enthusiasts.

R – Watch Terminology


The Rattrapante, also known as the split-seconds chronograph, is a sophisticated and highly specialized complication in watchmaking. Its primary purpose is to enable the measurement of two separate events simultaneously or to compare the durations of two events that start together but may have different ending times. This intricate mechanism features two seconds hands, one of which is superimposed over the other. Initially, both hands move in perfect unison when the chronograph is activated. However, by pressing an additional pusher, typically located above the main chronograph pusher, one of the seconds hands can be stopped independently while the other continues to run. This allows for precise timing of events such as lap times in sports or the intervals between two occurrences.


A Repeater is a complex and captivating horological complication that serves a unique purpose – it audibly chimes the time on demand. This feature was especially important in earlier times when illumination was limited, allowing users to discreetly check the time in the dark. The Repeater typically produces a sequence of chimes corresponding to the hours, quarter-hours, and minutes, providing an acoustic representation of the current time. It’s a testament to the craftsmanship of watchmakers, as creating a Repeater involves intricate mechanisms, such as hammers and gongs, to produce clear and melodious tones.

Retrograde Display

A Retrograde display in watchmaking serves the purpose of providing a unique and visually captivating way to track time. Unlike traditional watch hands that complete a full rotation around the dial, a retrograde hand follows an arc or semicircular path and then swiftly returns to its starting position. This design not only adds an element of complexity and sophistication to the watch but also offers a practical function, typically used to display information such as dates, days of the week, or elapsed time on a chronograph.

Rotating Bezel

The Rotating Bezel enables users to measure elapsed time or track specific intervals. By rotating the bezel, the wearer can align it with the watch’s minute or second hand, effectively creating a countdown timer. This feature is invaluable for divers, allowing them to keep track of their remaining oxygen supply or monitor the duration of a dive. Additionally, it’s used by pilots for flight timing and navigation. The unidirectional design of many rotating bezels ensures that accidental adjustments can only reduce the elapsed time, enhancing safety in critical timing situations.


The Rotor is a small, semi-circular piece of metal, often weighted, that moves with the motion of the wearer’s arm. The primary role of the rotor is to wind the mainspring, which is the heart of the watch’s power source. As the rotor pivots with the wearer’s movements, it transfers energy to the mainspring, storing it as potential energy. When the mainspring is fully wound, it gradually releases this energy to power the watch’s movement, causing it to tick and accurately measure time. Without the rotor’s continuous winding action, automatic watches would require manual winding to keep them running, making the rotor a vital component in ensuring the watch’s perpetual operation and convenience for the wearer.

S – Watch Terminology

Sapphire Crystal

The Sapphire Crystal is made from synthetic sapphire, a material renowned for its exceptional hardness and scratch-resistant properties. This hardness ensures that the watch face remains clear and free from damage, maintaining its pristine appearance even after prolonged use. Sapphire crystal not only safeguards the dial, hands, and movement from external elements like dust, moisture, and impact but also allows wearers to admire the intricate craftsmanship of the watch through its transparent surface.

Screw-Down Crown

A Screw-Down Crown enhances the watch’s water resistance by creating a hermetic seal when tightened. When the crown is unscrewed, it can be pulled out to set the time, date, or perform other functions. Once the desired adjustment is made, the wearer must firmly screw the crown back into its original position. This action effectively seals the crown against the case, preventing water, dust, and other contaminants from infiltrating the watch’s delicate inner mechanisms.

Shock Protection

Shock protection in watchmaking serves a crucial purpose of safeguarding the delicate and precise components of a mechanical watch movement from the adverse effects of external shocks and impacts. These shocks can occur during everyday wear, accidental drops, or sudden jolts, and without adequate protection, they could disrupt the timekeeping accuracy and even damage the intricate gears and balance wheel inside the watch. Shock protection systems, such as Incabloc and Kif, employ jewel bearings and springs to absorb and dissipate the energy generated by a sudden impact, preventing it from reaching the critical inner workings of the movement. This ensures that the watch continues to keep accurate time even in the face of unexpected physical stress, enhancing its durability and longevity.

Shock Resistance

Shock resistance is a critical feature in watchmaking designed to safeguard the delicate and precise internal components of a timepiece from the jolts and impacts it may encounter during everyday wear. Watches are subjected to various shocks and vibrations, from accidental drops to sudden movements, which could disrupt their accuracy. To counter this, watchmakers incorporate shock protection systems like Incabloc and Kif into the design. These systems act as shock absorbers, allowing crucial parts such as the balance wheel and escapement to momentarily absorb and dissipate the energy from external shocks, preventing damage and ensuring that the watch continues to maintain its precision over time.

Skeleton Case

A Skeleton Case provides a transparent view of the intricate mechanical movement inside the watch, allowing enthusiasts to marvel at the intricate gears, springs, and balance wheels that power the timepiece. This transparency can also facilitate maintenance and repairs, as watchmakers can easily access and inspect the movement. Aesthetically, a Skeleton Case adds a touch of elegance and sophistication to a watch, turning it into a work of art. It showcases the craftsmanship and precision that goes into creating a mechanical watch, making it a conversation starter and a source of pride for the wearer.

Spring Bar

Spring bars are unassuming metal rods feature spring-loaded ends, allowing them to be easily inserted into the holes on the watch strap and securely fit into the lugs on the watch case. Their flexibility and design ensure a firm yet adaptable connection, permitting wearers to change watch straps effortlessly and customize their timepiece’s appearance. The spring bars’ functionality simplifies maintenance, allowing for strap replacements or adjustments without requiring complex tools or procedures. A spring bar tool should be used to remove a spring bar without damaging the watch case.


SpringLOCK is a patented anti-shock system that serves as a safeguard for the balance wheel within a watch movement. By significantly reducing the impact of shock by up to 66%, SpringLOCK ensures that the delicate inner workings of the timepiece remain protected and continue to function with precision. This technology not only preserves the longevity of the watch but also maintains its accuracy, making it an invaluable addition for those who engage in high-impact activities while wearing their cherished timepieces.

Subsidiary Dial

A Subsidiary Dial, often positioned within the main watch face, are designed to display various supplementary features such as dates, alarms, dual time zones, chronograph functions, calendars, or elapsed time measurements. Subsidiary dials enhance the versatility and usability of timepieces, allowing wearers to access essential information at a glance without disrupting the main timekeeping display.

Sweep Seconds-hand

Unlike traditional seconds-hands that are often positioned on subsidiary dials, the Sweep Seconds-hand is centrally located on the watch dial. Its sweeping, continuous motion allows for accurate measurement of seconds, making it especially valuable in situations where precise timing is essential, such as timing events, recording elapsed time, or even medical procedures. This feature enhances the overall functionality of a timepiece, providing both practicality and visual appeal, as it glides smoothly around the dial, offering an elegant and real-time display of seconds.

T – Watch Terminology


A tachymeter serves as a practical tool for various activities where speed is a crucial factor, such as racing or aviation. The tachymeter scale, often located on the watch’s bezel or dial, allows the wearer to calculate the speed of an object’s movement by measuring the time it takes to travel a known distance. This functionality makes tachymeters popular among racing enthusiasts, pilots, and anyone who needs to gauge speed quickly and accurately.

Tank Watch

Introduced by Cartier and inspired by the appearance of military tanks from World War I, the Tank Watch represents a harmonious fusion of horology and artistry. Its purpose transcends mere timekeeping; it serves as a symbol of timeless sophistication and a testament to the enduring appeal of classic design in the watchmaking industry. The Tank Watch’s enduring popularity lies in its ability to effortlessly blend functionality with aesthetics, making it a statement piece for those who appreciate the marriage of precision engineering and timeless elegance.


A Timegrapher is an indispensable tool in the world of watchmaking, serving a crucial purpose in ensuring the accuracy and performance of mechanical watches. Its primary function is to evaluate a watch’s timekeeping precision by analyzing the beat rate, amplitude, and beat error of the balance wheel. By carefully measuring the vibrations and oscillations of the balance wheel, a Timegrapher provides watchmakers with essential data to make precise adjustments. This tool helps in regulating a watch’s movement, ensuring that it keeps time accurately under various conditions.

Tonneau Watch

Introduced by Cartier and inspired by the design of military tanks from World War I, the Tonneau watch combines elegance with a touch of avant-garde aesthetics. Its purpose in watchmaking extends beyond telling time; it serves as a canvas for innovative design and a symbol of individuality. The curved sides of the Tonneau case not only make it comfortable to wear but also provide a canvas for creativity, allowing watchmakers to experiment with various materials, dials, and complications.


The tourbillon is a mesmerizing and intricate component in high-end watchmaking, designed with a specific purpose in mind: to improve the accuracy of mechanical watches. Its name, which means “whirlwind” in French, aptly describes its function. In traditional mechanical watches, the effect of gravity on the balance wheel and escapement can lead to slight variations in timekeeping when the watch is in different positions. The tourbillon combats this issue by placing the escapement and balance wheel inside a rotating cage. This cage continuously revolves, typically at a rate of one rotation per minute, ensuring that the effects of gravity are evenly distributed across all positions of the watch. While the practical impact on modern timekeeping precision is debated, the tourbillon remains a symbol of exceptional craftsmanship and innovation in the world of horology, admired by watch connoisseurs for its technical complexity and aesthetic beauty.


Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, serves a crucial role in the realm of watchmaking by enabling the creation of luminous watch hands and hour markers. Its radioactivity emits low-energy beta particles, which, when combined with phosphorescent material, produce a soft, continuous glow in the dark. This glow-in-the-dark feature enhances the readability of a watch in low-light or nighttime conditions, making it highly valuable for military, aviation, and diving timepieces where precise timekeeping is essential. Tritium-based illumination is particularly prized for its reliability, as it doesn’t require exposure to light to recharge, unlike traditional luminous materials that depend on sunlight or artificial lighting.

U – Watch Terminology

Uni-Directional Rotating Bezel

The Uni-Directional Rotating Bezel is engineered to enhance safety during underwater expeditions. The unidirectional feature ensures that the bezel can only rotate counterclockwise. Divers typically use this bezel to mark their starting point before a dive, aligning the zero marker with the minute hand. As time elapses, it prevents accidental bezel rotation in the clockwise direction, which could potentially overestimate the remaining dive time, providing a reliable and fail-safe method to monitor the dive duration. This simple yet effective tool plays a pivotal role in preventing divers from staying submerged for too long, contributing to their safety while exploring the depths of the ocean.

W – Watch Terminology

Watch Strap

Watch Straps securely attach the timepiece to the wearer’s wrist, ensuring that the watch remains in place, allowing for easy timekeeping. They are designed for comfort, durability, and versatility, adapting to different wrist sizes and styles. Watch straps come in various materials such as leather, metal, rubber, and fabric, each offering distinct characteristics like elegance, durability, or sportiness. Aesthetically, watch straps play a crucial role in defining the overall look of a watch. They can complement the watch’s design, enhance its appeal, and even allow wearers to personalize their timepieces to match various occasions or outfits.


Watches are not merely accessories; they are precision instruments, and Water Resistance ensures their durability and functionality in various environments. Whether you’re caught in the rain, washing your hands, or diving into the depths of the ocean, a water-resistant watch remains unaffected, maintaining its accuracy and prolonging its lifespan. This feature is particularly vital for diver’s watches, designed to withstand the immense pressures and water exposure encountered during underwater exploration. Water resistance ratings, often indicated in meters or atmospheres (ATM), provide users with a clear understanding of a watch’s capability to handle water-related activities. A watch waterproof tester should be used to confirm water resistance.

Wheel Train

The Wheel Train consists of a series of interlinked wheels and pinions meticulously engineered to ensure that energy from the mainspring is efficiently distributed to the escapement, which then regulates the movement of the minute and second hands. The proper functioning of the Wheel Train is essential for maintaining accurate timekeeping, as any disruptions or irregularities in this intricate system can result in time deviations. Through its meticulous design and meticulous craftsmanship, the Wheel Train plays a crucial role in the heart of a watch, ensuring that each second is measured with precision and reliability, making it a fundamental element in the world of horology.


Winding is a fundamental process in watchmaking that serves the crucial purpose of powering a mechanical watch. In a mechanical timepiece, energy is stored in a tightly coiled mainspring, which is wound either manually using the crown or automatically through the motion of the wearer’s wrist. When the mainspring is wound, it stores potential energy. As time elapses, this energy is released in a controlled manner through a series of gears and springs, driving the various components of the watch, including the balance wheel, escapement, and hands. This controlled release of energy is what enables a mechanical watch to keep accurate time.

Winding Stem

The Winding Stem serves as the connection point between the watch’s exterior and interior mechanisms. One end of the winding stem is equipped with the crown, which wearers manipulate to wind the watch and set the time. When the crown is turned, it transfers the energy generated by winding to the mainspring, storing potential energy that powers the watch’s movement. Without the winding stem, the process of manually winding a watch or adjusting its time would be impossible. Thus, the winding stem is a fundamental element that ensures the proper functioning of mechanical watches, allowing them to maintain accurate timekeeping and reliability.

World Time Watch

A World Time Watch enables wearers to simultaneously track time across various time zones around the world. This intricate timepiece typically features a rotating bezel or dial with 24-hour markings, representing major cities or time zones. By adjusting the bezel or crown, users can align their current location with the corresponding city, allowing them to instantly read the time in multiple regions. World Time Watches cater to travelers, international business professionals, and anyone with connections spanning the globe.

We’re sure this list could go on forever so the above is just a start which we plan to expand over time, but If you think we’ve missed anything obvious, please don’t hesitate to get in touch.

Watch Terminology FAQ

The things on a watch are called watch parts or watch components. They are the different elements that make up a watch and allow it to function and display time. Some of the main watch parts are the case, the dial, the hands, the crown, the bezel, the crystal, the movement, the strap or bracelet, and the clasp.

The key parts of a watch are those that are essential for its operation and accuracy. They include:

Mainspring: The coiled spring that stores energy and drives the movement.
Balance Wheel: The oscillating wheel that regulates the speed of the movement and ensures accurate timekeeping.
Escapement: The device that transfers power from the mainspring to the balance wheel and controls its oscillations.
Jewels: The synthetic rubies or sapphires that serve as friction-reducing bearings for gears and pivots in mechanical watches.
Quartz Crystal: The thin slice of quartz that vibrates at a precise frequency when powered by a battery and regulates timekeeping in quartz watches.

The parts of a watch face are called:

Dial: The main part of the watch face that displays the time and other information.
Indices: The markers on the dial that indicate the hours, minutes or seconds. They may be numerals, symbols or shapes.
Subdials: The smaller dials on the main dial that provide additional information such as dates, alarms, dual time zones, calendars or elapsed time on a chronograph.
Date Window: A small opening on the dial that shows the current date.
Moon Phase Indicator: A display on the dial that shows the current phase of the moon.
What is the mechanics of a watch called? The mechanics of a watch is called the movement or caliber. It is the mechanism that powers and regulates the watch and controls its functions. There are two main types of movements: mechanical and quartz.

The workings of a watch are called:

Gears: The toothed wheels that transfer power from one part of the movement to another.
Pinions: The small gears that mesh with larger gears and connect them to other parts such as hands or subdials.
Springs: The coiled wires that store or release energy in mechanical watches. They include mainsprings, balance springs and hairsprings.
Levers: The bars or rods that transmit motion from one part of the movement to another. They include pallet levers, setting levers and chronograph levers.
Cams: The curved or irregularly shaped discs that control certain functions such as calendar adjustment or chronograph reset.